La fabricación abierta: ¿un camino alternativo a la industria 4.0?

Raúl Tabarés Gutiérrez

Resumen


Desde comienzos de la década del 2010, el concepto de “Industria 4.0” ha ganado popularidad en Europa para referirse a un tipo de factoría automatizada, digitalizada, modulable y flexible, capaz de hacer frente a las necesidades de un ecosistema productivo cada más exigente y cambiante. Pese a que el término fue acuñado inicialmente por el gobierno alemán, este vocablo ha sido ampliamente aceptado en el Viejo Continente, desarrollándose programas de apoyo específicos en cada país, en concordancia con la estrategia de digitalización de la industria que promueve la Comisión Europea. Pero esta transición hacia la fábrica conectada enfrenta multitud de retos que están lejos de ser resueltos a corto plazo. Al mismo tiempo, podemos observar que una nueva cultura de fabricación está surgiendo al albor del “movimiento maker”, a través de espacios de producción emergentes como makerspaces y fab labs, los cuales producen itinerarios de desarrollo tecnológico alternativos. En esta contribución se explora el surgimiento de la “fabricación abierta” y su papel de cara al empoderamiento de la ciudadanía a través de la tecnología, ante la necesidad de anticiparse y prever las brechas digitales que muy probablemente produzca la Industria 4.0.

Palabras clave


DIY; social appropriation; digital culture; maker movement

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