Modelos de evaluación de las declaraciones sobre propiedades saludables en alimentos y su impacto en la comprensión y la apropiación públicas de la ciencia

Noemí Sanz Merino

Resumen


La autorización del uso de las declaraciones de salud (health claims) —es decir: la afirmación de que un alimento contribuye a la mejora de la salud humana— requiere, en la mayor parte de los países, haber superado un proceso de evaluación tanto de la propiedad beneficiosa como de su presentación en el futuro etiquetado. Estos procesos tratan de garantizar la veracidad de la declaración, así como su correcta comprensión por parte del consumidor. En este artículo se presentan los resultados de un análisis comparativo de la regulación de ambas cuestiones en los Estados Unidos y en la Unión Europea, a partir de distintas categorías procedentes de los estudios sociales de la ciencia (o estudios CTS). Se analiza cómo diferentes estrategias evaluadoras para justificar las declaraciones de salud conducen a diferentes maneras de comunicar la ciencia involucrada en este asunto de salud pública. Se observan también los datos disponibles sobre el cumplimiento efectivo de los objetivos políticos asociados a estas regulaciones. Este análisis muestra las limitaciones para la apropiación de información científica por parte del consumidor, precisamente en el caso que a priori se consideraría menos tecnocrático y más participativo desde la perspectiva CTS.

Palabras clave


declaraciones de salud; evaluación de beneficios; comunicación científica; compresión pública de la ciencia; participación social

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Referencias


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